Sunday, March 31, 2013

[19/26] Codex de Borgia: Alexandri VI GLORIA levante cum laude Caesare S.R.E. Card. Valentino

Sunday, March 24, 2013

Distinguishing the terms: Latins and Romans

Distinguishing the terms:

Latins and Romans

dum conderet urbem, inferretque deos Latio, genus unde Latinum, Albanique patres, atque altae moenia Romae. Vergilius #Aeneid I:5-7. #Latino

while he was establishing a city and bringing gods to Latium, whence the #Latin race, the Alban fathers and the walls of lofty #Rome. #Lazio

Tali intus templo divum patriaque Latinus
sede sedens Teucros ad sese in tecta vocavit. #Vergil, Aeneid 7:192-193.

In this high Temple, on a Chair of State, the Seat of Audience, old Latinus sate; 
Then gave admission to the Trojan Train.

The Latins were an Indo-European people of the Italic branch who about the beginning of the 1st millenium BC have been settled in Central Italy, in a country south of the banks of the Tiber that was called Latium (modern Lazio). It was believed their names originated from the legendary king Latinus who ruled the city of Alba Longa in the 9th c. BC.

Politically the ancient Latium was a loose federation of city-states, such as Alba Longa, Tusculum, Lavinium, Ardea, Tibur (now Tivoli) and Praeneste (Palestrina), centered at the sanctuary of Jupiter on Albanus Mons. The city of Rome (in Latin Roma) was founded in the northern part of Latium in 754 or 753 BC by the twin brothers Romulus and Remus (it was called after Romulus) and for centuries served as a bulwark of Latinity against the Etruscan power. Starting in the late 6th c. BC the Romans gradually subjugated Italy and in the eve of the Christian era accomplished conquering the lands around the Mediterranean sea, thus creating an immense empire.

Under the Roman power the Latins had the status of socii (i.e. allies), which gave them great inner autonomy. After the so called Social war in 90-89 BC they obtained the rights of Roman citizens and subsequently all the people originating from Italy and speaking Latin as their mother thongue appealed themselves Romans. In 211 the Constitutio Antoniana de Civitate granted Roman citizenship to all the people under the rule of Rome. Since then the term Roman became a designation of a political community and as such went beyond the primary ethnic frames. It was applied to Celts, Iberians, Daco-Thracians and Illyrians who have abandoned their own languages for Latin and in this manner were completely assimilated, but also to the Greeks in the Eastern provinces who, though preserving their Greek language, adopted the name of Romans (in Greek Rhômaíoi) as a mark of their rise to political predominance in the state affairs of the East.

In the Middle ages the term Romans was used in Western Europe for making an inner distinction from Germans in the unified body of the Western Christendom. On the other hand, as Latin was the official written language in the matters of church and state, the term Latins was in common use by all Western Christians (whether Romance-, German- or Slavic-speaking nations) as distinguishing between themselves and the peoples from the rest of the world. Thus, the crusaders' states in the East were were given the name Latin. In the official political relations of Western Europe till the 11th c. the appeal of Roman was applied to the Eastern Roman empire (Byzantium), but its factual linguistic Hellenization combined with its power decline, made the Westerners to refer to it as a Greek empire and to its inhabitants as Greeks with a sense of undoubted despise. As a sign of prestige, both the empires of Charlemagne (established AD 800) and of Otho I (established AD 962) were labeled Roman.


So who are the #RealLatinos?

"Latins" refers to different groups of people and the meaning of the word changes for where and when it is used.

The original Latins were an Italic tribe inhabiting central and south-central Italy. Through conquest by their most populous city-state, Rome, the original Latins culturally "Romanized" or "Latinized" the rest of Italy. In this way the word "Latin" ceased to mean a particular people or ethnicity. Subsequently, other regions, particularly the European ones such as Italy, Spain, Romania, Portugal and France became lastingly culturally "Latinized" by the Roman Empire. Thus, from an early stage in its history, when used as a label for various groups of people, the term "Latin" has had purely legal and cultural meanings, not ethnic.

A millennium after the fall of the Western Roman Empire of which they formed part, these European nations began to spread their Latin-derived languages and cultures around the world through their own empires, especially in the Americas. The meaning of the term "Latin" has thus broadened from its ancient meaning to refer to a number of different peoples in Europe and in Latin America, typically those who speak Romance languages.Contents [hide]
1 Antiquity
2 Middle Ages
3 Modern uses
3.1 Latin Europeans
3.2 Latin Americans
4 See also
5 External links
6 References

Main article: Latins (Italic tribe)
Further information: Latin League

Groups within the Italian peninsula.

Latins were an ancient Italic people of the Latium region in central Italy, (Latium Vetus - Old Latium), in the 1st millennium BC, after migrating there from the Danube Region. Though they lived in independent city-states, the Latins spoke a common language (Latin), held common religious beliefs, and shared a close sense of kinship, expressed in the myth that they all descended from Latinus. Latinus was worshiped on Mons Albanus (Monte Albano) during an annual festival attended by all Latins, including those from Rome, one of the Latin states. The Latin cities extended common rights of residence and trade to one another.

Rome's territorial ambitions united the rest of the Latins against it in 341 BC, but the final victory was on Rome's side in 338 BC. Consequently, some of the Latin states were incorporated within the Roman state, and their inhabitants were given full Roman citizenship. Others became Roman allies and enjoyed certain privileges. Gradually, with the spread of Roman power throughout Italy and Western Europe, Latin ceased to be an ethnic term and became a legal category.

Middle Ages
Further information: Latin Rite and Western Christianity

After the fall of the Roman Empire, many Europeans held on to the "Latin" identity, more specifically, in the sense of the Romans, as members of the Empire.

In the Byzantine Empire or East Roman Empire, and the broader Greek-Orthodox world, Latins was a synonym for all people who followed Roman Catholic Christianity.[1] It was generally a negative characterization, especially after the 1054 schism.[2] Latins is still used by the Orthodox church communities, but only in a theological context.

The Holy Roman Empire was founded after the fall of Rome but brandished the name of the Roman people and honoured the king with the title "King of the Romans". Despite this, the Holy Roman Empire was largely a Germanic affair with German kings, although its territory was considerably greater than present day Germany. At times, the Holy Roman Empire did not even include the city of Rome.

The term was later borrowed, in various variants, by several languages of the Middle East and southern Asia, sometimes referring to any European.

Modern uses It has been suggested that portions of this section be moved into Latin peoples.  

Latin Europeans
Main article: Latin Europe

The term "Latin" is sometimes used in reference to European people whose cultures are particularly Roman-derived, generally including the use of Romance languages.[3] Strong Roman legal and cultural traditions characterize these nations. Latin Europe is a major subdivision of Europe, along with Germanic Europe and Slavic Europe.

Latin Americans
Main article: Latin America

Of all world regions, the Americas have been most significantly influenced by Romance-speaking European countries in regards to culture, language, religion, and genetic contribution to the population. The Latin European-influenced region of the Americas came to be called Latin America in the 19th century. The French Emperor Napoleon III is often credited with this naming.[4] The term is usually used to refer to Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking countries, namely Hispanic America and Brazil. Most Latin Americans have Latin European ancestry, especially Spanish and Portuguese, usually mixed with either Native American or African ancestry, or both.

The Vatican Vergil: A Masterpiece of Late Antique Art

Aeneid (Vergilius Vaticanus)

European Kingdoms
Ancient Italian Peninsula